Table of contents:
- Basic macronutrients
- Basic micronutrients
- Attention, chlorosis
- Top dressing during flowering and fruit setting
- Top dressing during the growth and ripening of fruits
- Very important information
Video: How To Feed Plants
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
It is well known that for full growth and development plants need a constant flow of energy, which is provided by: water, light, heat, carbon dioxide, oxygen and, of course, nutrients. Moreover, it is very important that the plant's nutrients are received in a timely manner and depending on the need for each phase of development.
Probably it will not be superfluous to remind that during the growing season plants need both organic and mineral substances, incl. trace elements. The fact is that each battery has its own function, which no other can perform for it. The most optimal is to correctly combine the introduction of all nutrients. The information is well known, but so necessary for the correct approach to plant nutrition.
N (nitrogen) is a part of protein (from 15.0 to 17.5%), without which not a single cell of a living organism can exist, incl. and vegetable. Nitrogen is part of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), which are carriers of hereditary information. In addition, nitrogen is part of chlorophyll, without which the process of photosynthesis is impossible. And nitrogen is also a part of enzymes - biological catalysts, under the influence of which all processes occur in a plant organism. With a lack of nitrogen, plants develop poorly, the leaves become small and turn yellow quickly, the flowers do not open, dry up and fall off.
K (potassium) is involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, enhances the activity of enzymes, regulates the functioning of the stomatal apparatus, helps plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air, and also promotes rational use of water, which increases plant resistance to drought and the adverse effects of high temperatures. In addition, under the influence of potassium, the cold resistance of plants increases, due to an increase in the content of carbohydrates in the cells and an increase in osmotic pressure. With a lack of potassium, plants are easily affected by diseases. Enzymatic activity is weakened, which leads to metabolic disorders. The leaves turn yellow prematurely, starting at the edges, then turn brown and die off.
P (phosphorus) is involved in photosynthesis, nucleation and cell division, and the accumulation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. In addition, phosphorus contributes to the specialization of cells and the transmission of heredity. All this is due to one of the most important functions of phosphorus in the metabolism, as a result of which energy-rich compounds are formed - adenosine triphosphoric (ATP) and adenosine diphosphoric (ADP) acids. And phosphorus also affects the formation of the root system and reproductive organs, increases cold resistance, as well as drought resistance of plants. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves turn purple or purple. Yellow-brown or brown spots appear on the edges of the lower leaves. Leaves sometimes curl, while flowering and fruit ripening is delayed.
Fe (iron) is a catalyst in the redox reactions accompanying the synthesis of chlorophyll, which carries out the process of photosynthesis. In addition, iron ensures the transfer of oxygen through plant tissues, i.e. the process of plant respiration. With a lack of iron in plants, the content of chlorophyll decreases. This leads to plant chlorosis: first, the apical leaves turn yellow, between the veins, and then completely. Further chlorosis can affect the entire plant and lead to its death.
Mn (manganese) is involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll. It activates the action of many enzymes (or is a part of them), which are of great importance in redox processes. Increases the ability of plant tissues to retain water. Accelerates the overall development of plants. Has a fungicidal effect. With its lack, the leaf blade turns yellow, but the veins remain green, leaf spot appears, leading to necrosis of plant tissue.
B (boron) promotes the synthesis of sugars, and also increases the resistance of plants to lack of moisture. Promotes plant growth. Improves fruit set. With a lack of boron, the apical bud (growth point) dies, barren flowers appear, the ovaries fall off, the leaves become ugly, their edges and tops die off, and the veins turn red.
Mo (molybdenum) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism and directly affects yield. With its deficiency, a large amount of nitrates accumulates in plant tissues and metabolism is disturbed. Growth is inhibited, chlorophyll synthesis is inhibited, light spots appear on the leaves, buds may die off, fruits and tubers crack.
Zn (zinc) regulates cell metabolism, and is also part of many enzymes, participates in the formation of chlorophyll, promotes protein synthesis, and enhances plant growth. Has a fungicidal effect. With a lack of zinc, metabolism is disturbed: the content of inorganic phosphate increases, which manifests itself in chlorotic spots on the leaves, strong mottling of old leaves, small-leaved plants. A characteristic sign of zinc deficiency is rosette: young shoots have very short internodes, and the leaves at the end of the shoot are collected in a rosette.
Cu (copper) activates the formation of proteins and vitamins of the B group, is a part of enzymes, and participates in redox reactions. Has a fungicidal effect. With a copper deficiency, the lignification of cell walls is disturbed, the intensity of respiration and photosynthesis decreases. The lack of copper can be determined by the persistent wilting of the upper leaves, even with good moisture supply, up to their fall.
S (sulfur) is involved in the synthesis of vitamins, amino acids and proteins. With a lack of sulfur, weak plant growth and premature yellowing of the leaves are observed.
Co (cobalt) affects the accumulation of carbohydrates and fats in plants, and also takes part in redox reactions. It has a positive effect on the increase in chlorophyll in the leaves and vitamin B12. In berries, it increases sugar content and reduces acidity.
Mg (magnesium) is part of chlorophyll, which carries out the process of photosynthesis, which is the basis of plant life. Participates in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. The lack of magnesium is manifested in the yellowing of the leaves between the veins.
So, the value and significance of each food element is clear. Now you need to figure out what fertilizers and when to apply.
As a rule, in the spring, organic (humus, peat, compost) or mineral fertilizers with a high nitrogen content are applied to the soil. Each gardener decides for himself, depending on personal experience and preferences. However, it is best to use both organic and mineral fertilizers. This is explained by the fact that organic fertilizing enriches the soil, mainly with nitrogen. At the same time, plants experience potassium and phosphorus hunger, and this negatively affects their development at the beginning of the growing season.
An example of spring feeding with macrofertilizers
Nitrogen (nitrate, urea, urea) - 30.0 g / m², apply only if organic fertilizers have not been applied; phosphoric (superphosphate) - 25.0 g / m²; potash (or wood ash) - 20.0 g / m².
Other ratios of the main macroelements are also possible. It all depends on the crops grown and personal positive experience. By the way, many people use complex mineral fertilizers intended for spring feeding. The main thing is to comply with the norms and terms of application.
Traditionally, mineral fertilizers are applied when the soil thaws, and some even do it in March, after the melting snow. All this is good and, of course, helps to create a certain supply of nutrients for plants. However, it should be borne in mind that mineral salts are assimilated by plants only by 30.0 - 40.0%. And also a high nitrogen content can lead to the accumulation of nitrates in fruits.
It is possible to make spring feeding of plants more efficient, economical and safe (without excess nitrates) and even less time consuming.
EcoFus is ideal for spring feeding
It is an organomineral fertilizer obtained from the White Sea brown algae - bubble fucus, in which all the useful substances of the original natural raw materials are carefully preserved.
EcoFus - contains absolutely everything that is necessary for the full growth and development of plants: both organic and mineral substances, incl. more than 42 microelements: Iron 1.8 g / l, Magnesium 0.5 g / l, Manganese 1.2 g / l, Copper 0.3 g / l, Boron 0.4 g / l, Zinc 0.3 g / l, Calcium 0.25 g / l, Molybdenum 0.2 g / l, Cobalt 0.1 g / l and others. By the way, EcoFus contains Nitrogen - 1.8%, Phosphorus - 1.0%, Potassium - 2.0%.
About the nutritional value of EcoFus
As you know, algae absorb and concentrate all the elements of sea water in their tissues. In terms of the content of most chemical elements, they are significantly superior to terrestrial plants. For example, fucus bladder contains a lot of iodine, selenium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, barium and silver, as well as vitamins - A, C, D, K, E, F, groups B, PP and others. It should be noted that all elements are in a natural (soluble) form and are easily assimilated by plants, without unnecessary energy costs. And this just speaks of the high efficiency of EcoFus. As for the efficiency, judge for yourself - when using EcoFus, there is practically no need for other fertilizers. EcoFus will replace both organic and mineral, incl. microelement feeding. It should be noted that the composition of EcoFus is balanced by nature itself,therefore, there can be no talk of an excess content of nitrates or any other harmful substances in fruits. But it's not only that. EcoFus contains alginic (alga - hydrochloric acid) acids, which bind and remove toxic substances from plants. By the way, when using organic fertilizers, such as manure and humus, there is always a danger of soil contamination with weed seeds and helminth eggs, and when using EcoFus, this is excluded. This is real safety for plants, the environment, and ultimately for a person who consumes vegetables, fruits and berries grown with EcoFus. Well, if we talk about labor intensity, then it is worth asking the question: which is easier - to use several fertilizers or just one? The answer is obvious.
About the content of bioactive substances in EcoFus
As studies have shown, Fucus bladderworm has the highest content of biologically active substances (BAS). It is thanks to them that the coastal algae survives in very harsh conditions (this is described in the article on increasing the stress resistance of plants): a complex of organic acids, incl. and essential amino acids, polysaccharides, including fucoidan with its unique properties, as well as enzymes, phytohormones, herbal antibiotics, anti-stress substances and many others.
It will be useful to remind once again that our distant ancestors, who lived in the coastal zone, used this alga both as a food product, and as a remedy, and, most importantly, as a fertilizer applied to the fields. "No algae, no bread." This saying still exists on the island of Jersey.
How to use EcoFus? By watering or spraying (50 ml per 10 liters of water), once every 10-15 days. Top dressing with EcoFus of vegetable crops should be started from the moment of transplanting to a permanent place, and for fruit and berry and ornamental crops - as soon as the soil completely thaws and warms up. In addition to spring feeding, EcoFus can be used throughout the summer season on any crops.
In the spring, many garden plants develop underdeveloped pale green leaves. The synthesis of chlorophyll (green pigment) in such plants is reduced, and accordingly, photosynthesis is not active. This is chlorosis, one of the reasons for which may be a lack of bioavailable (soluble) iron in the soil. Top dressing with EcoFus will partially help to correct the situation, because it contains many trace elements, including iron. However, for the complete recovery of plants from chlorosis, Ferovit is needed - a universal stimulator of photosynthesis and plant respiration with a high content of bioavailable (in chelated form) iron (75.0 g / l) and nitrogen (40.0 g / l) in the form of urea (information on chelated fertilizers, see below). Only 2-3 fertilizing with Ferovit at a concentration of 10-30 ml per 10 liters of water, with an interval of 5-7 days, by spraying, and chlorophyll synthesis will be restored. The color of the leaves will turn bright green, the processes of photosynthesis and respiration are activated, all plant systems will begin to function normally. This will lead to an increase in the accumulation of organic substances by plants necessary for continued growth and development. And in order to avoid the appearance of chlorosis in the future, it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying of all plants with Ferovit 1 time in 15 days.
Top dressing during flowering and fruit setting
The period of flowering and fruit setting is the most important, because the future harvest depends on it. If the plant does not receive enough nutrients, then many barren flowers are formed. The size and quality of the fruit suffers. By the way, by this time the need of plants for nitrogen is significantly reduced. During the period of flowering and fruit formation of most crops, it is necessary to use phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and, of course, trace elements.
An example of fertilizing with macrofertilizers during the flowering period
Granular superphosphate with a phosphorus concentration not exceeding 18.0%; double superphosphate, with a concentration of 40.0 to 50.0%; potassium salt, which contains 30.0-42.0% of pure potassium; potassium chloride (potassium concentration - not less than 53.0%); potassium sulfate (potassium concentration - from 45.0 to 56.0%).
Other options are possible, depending on the type of plants, as well as the use of complex fertilizers for summer dressing. These fertilizers need to be applied by watering, following the instructions, best of all, in the evening hours.
During flowering and fruit setting, plants need trace elements. By the way, they are also called “elements of life”. And this is not surprising, because trace elements are bioregulators of metabolism. They enhance photosynthesis, activate the synthesis of phytohormones, organic acids, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates. In addition, trace elements are part of the enzymes, eliminate functional disorders, improve flowering and fruit formation, have a positive effect on the size of fruits and improve their taste. And some trace elements even have a fungicidal effect (copper, manganese, zinc, see above) and help protect plants from diseases. All this suggests that trace elements often become a decisive factor in increasing yields and fruit quality.
Cytovit is an effective microelement feeding during flowering and fruit setting
It is a highly concentrated nutrient solution containing all essential trace minerals in a chelated (organic) form. (For the role of each microelement, see above.) Cytovite also contains macroelements (nitrogen 30.0 g / l, phosphorus 5.0 g / l, potassium 25.0 g / l), but in small amounts. The main thing in Tsitovit is trace elements: magnesium 10.0 g / l, sulfur 40.0 g / l, iron 35.0 g / l, manganese 30.0 g / l, boron 8.0 g / l, zinc 6, 0 g / l, copper 6.0 g / l, molybdenum 4.0 g / l, cobalt 2.0 g / l.
Fertilizers containing microelements are now quite a lot. And here the question of their bioavailability comes to the fore. And the chelated form, in which the trace elements of Cytovite are located, has a very high bioavailability, i.e. is absorbed by plants almost completely.
So what are chelates
These are compounds of metals with organic acids. The word "chelates" itself is translated as "claw". An inorganic substance (trace element) is enclosed in an organic molecule. The fact is that the chelated form is as close as possible to the form in which trace elements are found in plants. Therefore, plants perceive it as "their own" and easily assimilate.
In addition, the organic shell prevents the binding of trace elements in the root layer of the soil. The roots of plants absorb chelates, and they, in turn, give the plants nutrients, acting as a kind of conductors in this process.
The stability of the chelated fertilizer is another advantage. Neither soil acidity nor ambient temperature changes them. They are assimilated by 90% compared to salt forms (no more than 40%).
It should be noted that the use of chelated fertilizers is also very effective for foliar feeding. As you know, the leaves of plants have a waxy coating that protects them from drying out. The wax repels water and inorganic elements dissolved in it, slowing down their penetration into the leaves. And the organic (chelated) shell is able to pass through the waxy coating of the leaf inward, where it gives nutrients to the plant.
Not all elements are capable of chelating. Iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, calcium and magnesium are capable of chelating, the rest of the chemical elements are not. In addition, you need to remember that there is no nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a chelated form.
How to use Citovit? By watering or spraying, 10-30 ml per 10 liters of water, once every 10-15 days. It is possible on the same day with fertilizing with macrofertilizers, or separately.
So, the use of Cytovite during flowering and fruit setting will provide plants with all the necessary trace elements, and this will help prevent diseases caused by their deficiency: various types of chlorosis, necrosis and leaf spot, rosette, etc. The fruits of plants will be larger and tastier, with a high content of vitamins and minerals useful to humans.
Top dressing during the growth and ripening of fruits
Often, gardeners, especially beginners, ask themselves whether it is necessary to feed the plants during the period of growth and ripening of fruits? Let's figure it out. In plants that have entered the season of fruiting, the synthesis of intermediate products for fruit nutrition begins. So, these intermediate products accumulate for some time in "cell depots" or special storage organs. And in plants that are in unfavorable, and sometimes just stressful climatic conditions, the accumulation time of intermediate substances can be quite long, and the fruits do not have enough nutrients. Therefore, when such a question arises, there can be only one answer - it is necessary! However, each culture has its own needs, therefore, when choosing top dressing, in addition to general recommendations, specific ones should also be taken into account.
A few examples
It is recommended to feed apple trees with fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium. To do this, dilute 1 tablespoon of potassium monophosphate or other mineral fertilizer per 10 liters of water, and then water or and spray the crown of the tree.
But garden strawberries, on the recommendation of many specialists, during fruiting should be fed exclusively with natural fertilizers: chicken droppings, humus, wood ash, onion husks or yeast solution. By the way, EcoFus is perfect for feeding strawberries during the ripening period (50 ml per 10 liters of water, once every 10-15 days, by watering or spraying), because it is completely natural and contains everything that plants need.
Top dressing of tomatoes during fruiting must necessarily include potassium, since at this time the plants' need for it is maximum. Even if feeding with a full complex fertilizer is carried out, it is necessary to additionally add 20 grams of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water to the basic solution. Instead of potassium sulfate, wood ash can be used.
Very important information
As it would be nice, regularly making the necessary fertilizing, just wait for the harvest to ripen. Of course, you can wait. But pests and diseases do not wait. They can appear at the most inopportune moment, i.e. when "chemical" means of combating them in terms of the ripening of the crop can no longer be used due to the fact that their residual amounts accumulate in the fruits. And here Siliplant comes to the rescue - a fertilizer with a high content of bioactive (soluble) silicon (at least 7%), potassium (1%) and microelements in chelated form: iron 0.30 g / l, magnesium 0.10 g / l, copper 0.70 g / l, zinc 0.08 g / l, manganese 0.30 g / l, molybdenum 0.06 g / l, cobalt 0.015 g / l, boron 0.09 g / l. Siliplant will not only replenish the supply of trace elements and silicon, which in terms of importance for plants occupies the next place after the main macronutrients,but it will also provide gentle protection against diseases, as well as increase resistance to pests. Therefore, along with the traditional fertilizers necessary for each specific crop, absolutely all plants must be fed with Siliplant.
Briefly about the importance of silicon in plant life
It is well known that silicon is contained in absolutely all plants; it is part of the cell walls. Silicon normalizes metabolism, enhances photosynthesis, as well as the synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates. It should be noted that silicon stimulates the growth of both the root system and the aerial parts of plants, and also activates the phases of flowering and fruit formation, therefore, the use of Siliplant can be started during the flowering period. In addition, silicon improves the absorption of macro- and microelements by plants, and also increases soil fertility. Interesting fact! More than 70 elements of the periodic table are not assimilated by plants if there is not enough silicon. Silicon also plays a significant role in protecting plants from various types of stress. The fact is that plants respond to any stress by synthesizing special organic compounds,in which silicon is one of the most important components.
How does Siliplant protect plants from disease? First of all, due to the special strength that silicon creates. It accumulates in the integumentary tissues of plants in the form of a silica gel and binds to pectin and calcium ions, creating a thickening of the surface layer of cells. This increases the mechanical strength of plant tissues and, accordingly, their resistance to external damage, including pathogens (phytopathogens). Moreover, active silica of Siliplant increases chemical resistance to phytopathogens. It causes an additional synthesis of plant polyphenols in the treated plants, which have antiseptic properties and are capable of suppressing fungal or bacterial diseases in the early stages. If a phytopathogen hits the surface of a plant treated with Siliplant, then its focus will be localized,and the disease will stop. Thus, Siliplant, in addition to the nutritional value for plants, also has a pronounced fungicidal effect. Thanks to this, in many cases, it can protect plants without the use of fungicides (disease control chemicals). And this is very important during the ripening period!
How does Siliplant protect plants from pests? Here it is necessary to correctly understand that Siliplant does not destroy pests. But! As mentioned above, it provides that special strength of plant tissues, thanks to which pests can no longer cause serious damage to plants. In addition, Siliplant, by enhancing photosynthesis, promotes the rapid growth of new leaves. And this also creates additional resistance to pests.
Thus, with the help of Siliplant, it is possible to obtain environmentally cleaner products, enriched with vitamins, microelements and silicon valuable for human health!
How to use Siliplant? By watering or spraying, 10-30 ml per 10 liters of water, once every 10-15 days, from the end of flowering to harvest. By the way, the fruits of plants grown with Siliplant stay fresh longer and are better stored.
So, the use of organic mineral fertilizer EcoFus, as well as micronutrient fertilizers Tsitovit, Ferovit and Siliplant, along with the use of traditional mineral fertilizers, will help you grow a large and healthy harvest of vegetables, fruits and berries - a real "harvest of health"!
You can buy NEST M drugs, as well as get advice:
- at the address: 127550 Moscow, st. Pryanishnikova, 31A, VNIIA, office. 110
- in our online store: www.nest-m.biz
- by phone: (499) 976 - 2706, (499) 976 - 4736, 8 (800) 707- 88-65
- by e-mail: [email protected]
- on the company's website: www.nest-m.ru
You can feed pigs using several technologies. They are simple, differ mainly only in the set of feed. How and what to feed pigs, I will tell in my article
How And What To Feed Goats? Main Types Of Feed, Choice Of Pastures, Feeding And Drinking Regime. Photo
In nature, goats pluck mountain slopes. When stalling goats, the issue of nutrition is more complicated, but completely solvable. How and what to feed and feed goats in winter and summer, we will tell in this article
When you enter the forest and see the rampage of multi-tiered life, questions about gardening creep in. How to feed the plants in the garden and in the garden so that the effect is the same?
Each culture has a need for nutritional elements, and it is difficult to take them all into account. In the article we will tell you about feeding in May and show you how to make them correctly
Top dressing is not only the main, but also a vital point of plant care. Like watering, they are beneficial only when done correctly and on time