Table of contents:
- 1. Nitrogen
- 2. Potassium
- 3. Phosphorus
- 4. Boron
- 5. Magnesium
- 6. Iron
- 7. Zinc
- 8. Manganese
- 9. Molybdenum
- 10. Calcium
- 11. Copper
- 12. Edaphic chlorosis
Video: 12 Problems In Grape Nutrition, Or What Grapes Are Missing? Photo
2023 Author: Ava Durham | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 07:13
Grapes are a culture that requires constant attention. To help him form a quality crop, the grower must understand what the grape bush is talking about. What do the symptoms by which the plant “asks for help” mean? What to look for when inspecting grapes? It is good for novice gardeners to have notes on hand that describe the signs of the manifestation of certain deviations in the development of grapes, and what they mean. In this article I will try to describe the most common manifestations of a deficiency or an overabundance of the main macro- and microelements in the diet of a grape bush.
Nitrogen is one of the basic nutrients required for every plant. As a component of protein and protein substances, it plays an irreplaceable role in the metabolism of the plant organism. Not only the strength of development depends on its lack or excess, but also the quantity and quality of the grape bush harvest.
If a grape bush is well supplied with nitrogen, it develops well, the tips of its shoots are characteristically curved, and the antennae are long. At the initial stage of their development, young leaves unfold in a "boat" and only after reaching their normal size do they become at a right angle with respect to the shoot. Berries gain sugar well - the grapes are sweet.
The need for nitrogen in a grape bush varies and depends on the weather conditions. It decreases with a lack of heat and sun. Increases with optimal moisture supply in hot sunny weather.
If a vine bush is deficient in nitrogen, its foliage brightens, starting at the bottom of the shoots and gradually moving towards the tops. At first, the leaves turn light green, then turn yellow, their petioles acquire a ruby-red color, the veins protrude strongly. Young leaves quickly unfold and immediately become at a right angle in relation to the shoot. The bush lags behind in growth, stops early in development. The tips of the shoots, they are called "crowns", stick out straight, and with strong starvation they can even die off.
Lack of nitrogen also affects the harvest. The bunches on the bush are loose, sugar accumulation is weak. If the load on the bush is large, in the second half of summer the bush is greatly depleted, the leaves begin to bend, forming a vault, and die off from the edges. The antennae often fall off. Ripe shoots are light in color and have a rough surface.
Overfeeding with nitrogen fertilizers is manifested by the violent development of young shoots - the bushes "fatten": the shoots grow thick, their internodes are formed elongated, the leaf is large, dull green. The yield of such plants is low. Ripening of bunches is late. The berries are large, watery, unsweetened. The risk of disease affecting bunches increases. The ripening of the vine slows down, which is why the plants have low frost resistance.
Potassium is present in all parts of the grape plant. Participates in the metabolism and performs many more different tasks. The grape bush is constantly in need of potassium, but most of all at the end of summer, when the bunches begin to grow and fill, especially if during this period it does not have enough moisture.
If, at the ripening stage, the grapes receive enough potassium, their pulp texture improves, the tendency to cracking decreases and the resistance to gray rot increases (during storage). Wine from these grapes is of a higher quality. However, you cannot overfeed plants with potassium. Its excess impairs the absorption of other nutrients by grapes and leads to a deterioration in the quality of juice and wine products.
The lack of potassium in the grape bush most often manifests itself during the ripening period of the berries. The first symptoms are found on the old lower foliage, most clearly on the leaves of fruiting shoots up to the first bunch. And they gradually move up, while the tops of the shoots remain normal. The leaves become brittle, starting from the edges they lighten (in white varieties), turn red or purple (in colored varieties), but their middle is green.
Over time, the leaves curl upside down, dry out and fall off. Often brown spots appear on old foliage, the tissue of which gradually falls out and the leaf becomes full of holes. The change in leaf color is especially early manifested in the absence of moisture.
With strong potassium starvation, young leaves are distinguished by a metallic sheen. After a short time (after several weeks), their tissue is torn, and the grapes become like a plant beaten by hail. If the degree of potassium deficiency is mild, the leaf blades bubble between the veins (folding forms along the main veins).
The bunches ripen with a delay, the berries gain sugar content poorly, ripen unevenly, and are poorly colored. The skin of the berries is thin. If you pick a berry, a lot of pulp remains on the stalk. The legs of the bunches are so soft that they can be easily pinched with a fingernail. During storage, the bunches begin to rot from the stalk. Wines from such berries are of low quality. Ripening of the vine is delayed. In winter, the tops of the shoots freeze out.
Poor growth of grapes and early ripening of berries, despite the fact that they do not grow to the required size, indicate an excess of potassium.
The need for phosphorus in a grape bush is constantly observed, but it increases at the beginning of flowering and at the end of summer. Phosphorus takes part in metabolic processes, is a connecting link of various cellular structures. If the plants are well supplied with phosphorus throughout the growing season, a good harvest can be expected.
The first signs of phosphorus deficiency begin to appear on grapes in spring: the development of shoots slows down, the leaves are dark green, do not reach their usual size, the edge of the leaf plate is bent up. With strong phosphorus starvation, red-violet spots appear on the leaves, on which tissue later dies off. The leaf petioles are longer than usual.
The bushes develop poorly, significantly lag behind in growth, have a weak density, and may have a dwarf appearance. The root system is also poorly developed.
With a phosphorus deficiency, the fruit buds of grapes are laid unsatisfactorily. The flowers are formed on long stems, their caps are difficult to shed. After flowering, the inflorescences crumble, which is why the productivity of the bushes is low. There are many "pea" berries in the brushes. In berries, seeds are small or not formed at all. But, in addition, phosphorus starvation provokes the accumulation of nitrates in grapes and impairs the taste of wine products.
Excess phosphorus on grape bushes is manifested in the drying of the edge of the old foliage.
Despite the fact that boron is not a macroelement, its necessity in the life of a grape bush is difficult to overestimate - with a lack of boron, the grape bush is incapable of either full growth or the formation of a full-fledged harvest.
Boron deficiency symptoms resemble those of nitrogen and potassium starvation. More often found on waterlogged carbonate soils. On acidic soils, they appear during the sultry period of summer, when the plants lack moisture. By the end of the growing season, these symptoms usually disappear.
With a lack of boron after the formation of 5-6 leaves, the development of shoots of the grape bush slows down. Light spots appear between the veins of the upper foliage, along the edge of the leaf there is a brown border. The affected leaf bends upwards. Young leaves become coarse, the tops of the shoots die off. On the antennae, brown thickenings sometimes appear. A large number of side shoots are formed, which can also die off. The internodes are unevenly shortened, the nodes are thickened. In acute starvation, the plant may die.
But, in addition, boric starvation in grapes is also manifested by shedding of flowers, ovary, "peas" of berries. Moreover, underdeveloped berries often lack seeds.
Outward signs with an excess of boron resemble iron deficiency, especially in July-August. New shoots on the bushes are thin, their internodes are short, the leaves are small, yellow.
The symptoms of magnesium deficiency are similar to those of potassium starvation - they start from the lower leaves. Often they are found together, with the spring "fever" of the bushes (occurs with sharp fluctuations in temperature), but in this case they disappear by the time of fruiting.
With a lack of magic, it flows from the lower foliage to the young leaves. For this reason, the first and most striking signs are observed on the old leaf apparatus and appear in the form of interveinal chlorosis. At the same time, the veins themselves and the tissue around them do not change color. If fasting is strong, the lower leaves fall off, chlorosis spreads to the entire bush.
Lack of iron in grapes is often observed in spring with prolonged rains, especially on calcareous soils, where soluble lime binds not only iron, but also potassium and phosphorus.
Iron deficiency is manifested by chlorosis of young foliage. The lightening of the leaf plates starts from the crown of the shoots and goes down. With prolonged fasting, the leaf becomes light lemon, almost white, its edges dry out. Shoots form short internodes, slow down in growth, and become fragile. The leaves grow small. The inflorescences turn yellow and crumble.
On grape bushes suffering from a lack of iron, many thin stepchildren are formed with small foliage of a chlorous color. The yield of such plants is low.
Zinc deficiency is most common in calcareous soils. It appears on foliage as light green or chlorotic spots located between the veins. The leaves in the middle of the shoots become coarse and wrinkled. The new leaves are small, underdeveloped, with a wide open petiole and short petioles. Flowering is late. Shoots grow thin, curved, with shortened internodes (especially in the upper part). Peas are observed (there are seeds in underdeveloped berries).
Manganese deficiency is more common on soils with neutral and alkaline reactions. It begins to appear on the leaves in small light green spots, while the color of the veins and the tissue adjacent to them remain green, which gives the foliage a patterned appearance. Gradually, the leaves turn yellow completely, necrosis appears on the affected tissues.
The signs of molybdenum deficiency in grapes resemble the signs of manganese deficiency, they appear at the moment the berries begin to ripen. On the middle part of the shoots, the leaves bend upwards, covered with mildew-like spots, which over time become like a burn. Chlorous areas of leaf plates swell. The leaves have a patterned appearance. May dry up. Shoot development slows down. The apical foliage takes on a dirty green color. The petioles of such leaves have a reddish-brown tint.
With a calcium deficiency, the grape bush stops growing early, forming small shoots with short internodes, small leaves and loose clusters. The bark becomes reddish. In general, the plant looks depressed.
Copper deficiency occurs when growing grapes, mainly on poor soils - sandy, peaty. Leads to poor absorption of trace elements by plants.
Copper starvation can lead to partial interveinal chlorosis, most often of young leaves. Then brown spots may appear on them.
With an overabundance of copper, grapes acquire bitterness, which also indicates a lack of manganese.
12. Edaphic chlorosis
Edaphic chlorosis is not uncommon in the vineyard. It arises as a result of unfavorable weather conditions - a sharp drop in temperature, prolonged rains. It can also be the result of excessive saturation (oversaturation) of the soil with organic matter or severe depletion of soils, improper fertilization, which causes an imbalance in plant nutrition.
Such chlorosis appears within 7-10 days, "repainting" the leaves of grape bushes from green to light green along the entire length of the shoots, and then to yellow, light yellow, and sometimes almost white.
Dear Readers! To finally make sure that there is a shortage of one or another battery, it is necessary to carry out a trial processing on the sheet with a solution of the intended element. If the diagnosis is correct, after 2-3 days (for trace elements, phosphorus and magnesium, the waiting period is 5-7 days), the plant will respond by changing the color of the leaves and activating the growth processes of the treated shoots. If you have not guessed correctly, there will be no reaction. At the same time, it is not necessary to process the entire bush - it is enough to apply the solution to the leaf apparatus of several shoots, and on different shoots you can spray with different elements and, by reaction, make sure of what is missing.
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